Wednesday, 4 January 2012
Many units of New York State militia saw service in the American Civil War, after being activated into federal service by President Abraham Lincoln.
The activation of state militia by President Abraham Lincoln led to some conflict with State authorities in command of the units:
After Lincoln called out all the militia in April 1861, the Republican Wide Awakes, the Democratic "Douglas Invincibles", and other parade groups volunteered en masse for the Union army. In 1864, reports of political rallies note that "The Northwestern Wide Awakes, the Great Western Light Guard Band, and the 24th Illinois Infantry" were at a Chicago meeting. On November 5, the Chicago Union Campaign Committee (the name of Lincoln's party that year) declared,
- "On Tuesday next the destiny of the American Republic is to be settled. We appeal to Union men. We appeal to merchants to close their stores, manufacturers to permit their clerks and laborers to go to the polls, the Board of Trade to close, the Union Leagues and Wide Awakes to come out. The rebellion must be put down.
- With the advent of the Civil War in April, 1861, the 14th regiment saw its first war service in guarding the Brooklyn Navy Yard. By mid-April of that year, the "Brooklyn Chasseurs" were ready to leave New York for Washington D.C. The 14th Regiment New York State Militia (also called the 14th Brooklyn) was a volunteer militia regiment from the City of Brooklyn, New York. It is primarily known for its service in the American Civil War from April 1861 to May 1864, although it later served in the Spanish American War and World War I (as part of the 106th Regiment). In the Civil War, the regiment was made up of a majority of abolitionists from the Brooklyn area. It was led first by Colonel Alfred M. Wood and later by Colonel Edward Brush Fowler. The 14th Brooklyn was involved in heavy fighting, including most major engagements of the Eastern Theater. Their engagements included the First and Second Battles of Bull Run, the Battle of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, The Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House. During the war, the men of the 14th Brooklyn were well known by both armies and throughout the country for their hard drill, hard fighting, and constant refusal to stand down from a fight. During their three years of service they never withdrew from battle in unorderly fashion. On December 7, 1861, the State of New York officially changed the regiment's designation to the 84th New York Volunteer Infantry (and its unit histories are sometimes found under this designation). But at the unit's request and because of the fame attained by the unit at First Bull Run, the United States Army continued to refer to it as the 14th.
The 14th Brooklyn received its nickname, the "Red Legged Devils", during the First Battle of Bull Run. Referring to the regiment's colorful red trousers as the regiment repeatedly charged up Henry House Hill,
Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson yelled to his men, "Hold On Boys! Here come those red legged devils again!"
In the early part of the war, when the 14th Brooklyn was in General Walter Phelps' brigade, the brigade was named "Iron Brigade". It would later to become known as the "Eastern Iron Brigade" after John Gibbon's Black Hat Brigade was given the name "Western Iron Brigade". At the conclusion of the war, all members of the "Eastern" or "First" Iron Brigade were given medals for their service within the Iron Brigade.
Colonel Alfred Wood advised the Honorable Governor Morgan that the regiment was prepared to march and had accepted a three year federal enlistment. However, the governor would not issue orders for the regiment to leave New York. While encamped at Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn , Colonel Wood and Congressman Moses O'Dell went to see President Lincoln to secure orders for the regiment to march to Washington. President Lincoln lost no time in issuing those orders to the 14th Brooklyn. When Governor Morgan learned that the regiment was preparing to march, he telegraphed Colonel Wood and inquired "by what authority" did he move his regiment, Colonel Wood coolly replied, "By the authority of the President of the United States
Tuesday, 3 January 2012
Fayolle studied at the École polytechnique, where he graduated with the class of 1873. During his career he served in the artillery. From 1897 to 1908 he taught artillery at the École supérieure de Guerre. He retired in 1914 with the rank of brigadier general.He was born in Le Puy en velas.
With the outbreak of the First World War,
was recalled from retirement by the French commander-in-chief Joseph Joffreand given command of the 70th Infantry Division.
In 1916, was given command of the Sixth Army, which he commanded at the battle of the Somme, under the command of Ferdinand Foch's Northern Army Group. In early 1917, Fayolle was transferred to command the First Army. When Philippe Pétain was appointed Chief of the General Staff in April 1917, Fayolle was put in command of the Army Group Center, to the disappointment of Foch, who had hoped for the command himself; Pétain replaced Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief in May 1917.
On 16 November 1917, after the Italians met disaster at Caporetto, Fayolle was transferred to Italy with six divisions and made commander in chief of the French troops supporting the Italians. Fayolle stayed in Italy until March 1918, when he was recalled to France and put at the head of the 55 division strong Army Group Reserve, with which he played a role in stopping the last big German offensives. After the allied victory in the Second Battle of the Marne, he took part in the allied counteroffensive until the end of the war.
He commanded occupation forces in the Palatinat and Rheinhessen and was a member of the allied Control Commission. Fayolle was named in 1920 a member of the French Conseil Supérieur de la Guerre, the highest French military council. The next year he was made to Marshal of France
Monday, 2 January 2012
|The Arte of Defence was studied and taught by masters in the late 15th and 16th Centuries. |
The most famous of the teachers typically came from Italy. Until the advent of the smallsword
and the French schools of fence, the Italians and to a lesser degree
the Spanish, enjoyed the role of the most sought after teachers of the Arte of Defence.
This is not to say that earlier fencing schools did not exist.
The Germans had fine schools and some of the oldest existant fencing manuals come from
The English at the end of the 16th Century followed the continental fencers in taking on
the use of the rapier. In defense of English technique, George Silver published a treatise
called the Paradoxes of Defence.
This treatise was used to espouse the use of the English weapons and to downplay
the use of the rapier. Silver hated the Italians and Spanish and
made sure that his readers knew that these styles
were more dangerous for the user than good English practices. He also wrote a treatise on
his Paradoxes called Brief Instructions. Two Italian Elizabethan Masters of note
(Vincentio Saviolo (d. 1598/9), though Italian born and raised, authored the first book on
fencing in the English language.
He arrived in London from Padua in 1590. John Florio described Saviolo's fencing school being, in 1591,
"in the little street where the well is...at the sign of the red Lyon." It was described by George Silver as being
"within a bow shot" of what was later the Bell Savage or la Belle Sauvage, at this time "Savage's inn,
the Bell on the Hoop" ( Inns and Taverns of Old London by Henry C. Shelley, 1909), on Ludgate Hill.
His particular nemesis among the Masters of Defence of the English school was this George Silver,
who wrote his own book to attack Saviolo's systems.
Vincentio Saviolo, his practise, in two bookes, the first intreating of the use of the Rapier and Dagger,
the second of Honor and honorable quarrels. London, printed by John Wolfe, 1595,
undertakes to instruct in the rapier fencing techniques of his day.
The careful reader will notice the absence of the lunge.As was ordinary in that day, it was structured like a conversation between Saviolo and an imaginary student. Those of today, used to FAQs, find this easier to follow than readers twenty years ago did. The original version has the idiosyncratic spelling common to the age. The terminology is strange to those used to modern fencing, but the illustrated versions make it possible to reconstruct. He was, after all, writing for people unable to get to a fencing master like himself). and Di Grassi.
Saviolo' s works cover not only his view on fencing mechanics but also honor.
Di Grassi in the author's opinion is one of the finer manuals translated to English
in this time period.
Although Di Grassi predates the Elizabethan period proper, his manual
which was orginally published in 1570 was translated into English in the
late Elizabethan period.