Saturday, 18 April 2015

weddington castle

Britain is a country blessed with a wealth of history; from ancient Celtic barrows, through to Roman villas and imposing medieval fortresses, and on to the architectural splendour of the Victorian era. From Stonehenge to St Albans Abbey, from Windsor Castle to Westminster, our ancestors have left us all with a precious legacy; a huge array of buildings – many of them open to the public – which serve as a timeless testimony to our extensive heritage.


When walking around such places, places which have survived and persisted through generation after generation of Britons, it is easy to feel that these solid rock-hewn castles and towering cathedrals are impregnable; that they will simply always be there as a constant national bequest for future generations to inherit.

But history does not stand still, and our ancient fortresses – built to withstand the enemies of their day – are not always proof against the inevitable march of progress. The occupying Romans desecrated centuries-old Druidic temples, Cromwell destroyed castles across the land upon gaining power and Henry VIII obliterated a wealth of ancient abbeys and monasteries. Of course, such destruction has always been cyclical, part of our historical evolution, and for every desecrated temple we have, in the fullness of time, gained a Roman villa. For every devastated castle a magnificent country manor has been constructed.

History, and the buildings which remain as its legacy, is always developing, always evolving. However, in more modern times – from the industrialisation of the Victorian era through to the consumerism of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries – a new type of evolution has developed: one which uses up our heritage as a resource, without necessarily replacing it.

As the United Kingdom gained in prosperity at the turn of the Nineteenth century, two key social and political developments occurred. Firstly the country moved from a hierarchical structure, based upon a wide divide between the ruling classes and the masses, to become a capitalist system, based upon the forces of trade and economics. Economy became the key – and this can be seen in the legacy of buildings that this era has produced: minimalist structures, often temporary and built of cheap, mass-produced materials, unlikely to survive down the centuries for future generations to marvel at.

The second development, a result of increased economic prosperity and stability, was the blurring of the divide between the haves and the have-nots, and the rise of the affluent middle-classes. This, along with the booms in immigration both after the Second World War and with the opening up of Europe at the end of the Twentieth century, led to an explosion in the demand for affordable housing and – as a result – land became a valuable commodity.

This shift of focus to the needs of the populace, coupled with the need for more and more land to build on, is perhaps a greater threat to face our legacy of historical buildings than the gunpowder and cannons of old. Throughout the last century, despite the work of bodies such as English Heritage and the National Trust in preserving much of our heritage for the public, many beautiful and unique buildings and their lands have been sold off. These valuable national heirlooms have been divided up, demolished and obliterated, to be replaced with uniform, utilitarian housing estates and commercial industrial sites. Unlike the Romans, the Elizabethans and the Victorians, our modern architects rarely seek to continue the cycle of history. Their concern is to build extensively, efficiently and cheaply – as the vast, faceless, prefabricated silos of our modern commercial parks testify.

Where we do seek to be innovative in our buildings, often there is an element of form over content, and a sense of building for the moment rather than for the future. Sir Norman Foster’s impressive glass structures for example, whilst visually stunning and highly innovative, are unlikely to remain intact for centuries to come.

Given this fact, and given that the demand for land for new housing is continuing to grow, it is perhaps a small comfort that we do at least have the means to capture a sense of what we are losing and have already lost. With the advent of photography, of film and more recently the Internet, we have the means to preserve the images of the constructions that have vanished forever, to document for future generations the legacy of our ancestors which we have sold off in the name of progress.

This account seeks to preserve what remains of one of those lost heirlooms, a place variously known as Weddington Hall or Weddington Castle. Evolving from a Royal Hunting Lodge in the ancient village of Weddington to become an extensive fortified Hall set amidst beautifully landscaped gardens, this centuries-old building was demolished in the 1920s to make way for a housing estate. This website cannot serve, therefore, as a guide to your knowledge as you walk through the wooden floored library of the Hall, or ascend the imposing staircase of fine old oak that once greeted visitors, or wander around the picturesque boating lake that graced the Hall’s grounds. It does, however, seek to bring together what remains of this once-splendid building.

Of course, such remains - a handful of black and white photographs, the occasional record in local journals - can never replace the actual physical presence of this lost building; cannot evoke the atmosphere and sense of continuity that one feels when walking on ancient flagstones where kings and queens have walked centuries before. But they can at least serve as a reminder that for all our wealth of history that has survived down the years, there is a sub-strata of history that did not survive. The suburban estates and grey factories of today are built upon the solid foundations and extravagant gardens of once-great manors that now only exist – ghostlike – in faded photographs and historical archives.

silver city

During the late 1960's and early 1970's the Dave & Arvilla Mills family began hauling in historic local Kern Valley structures, (many of which were slated for destruction) to the present site in Bodfish. "Represented in this composite town are over twenty historic buildings (most not visible from Lake Isabella Blvd) from the mining camps of Keyesville, Whiskey Flat, old Isabella, Claraville, Hot Springs, Miracle, Southfork and other local frontier settlements" Silver City was closed for over 15 years until it was purchased by the Corlew family in 1990 and re-opened to the public shortly thereafter. Over the years it had fallen in disrepair and had been "modernized". The Corlew's have logged more than 20,000 man hours of loving restoration work on the site.  Many people have donated labor and support (special thanks to Hal Brown and Don and Emily Diggles) and materials to the effort.
It is now operated as a museum to the Kern Valley's long and colorful history. Like Bodie Ghost Town in Northern California, Silver City has adopted a policy of �arrested decay�. Corlew says, �We want to show how local gold outposts may have looked after the gold ran out and the miners moved on, we are not trying to make it look brand new�. Visitors can go inside the original Isabella jail (gunslinger, Newt Walker was locked up here in 1905).Owner and local historian J. Paul Corlew is knowledgeable about other settlement sites nearby and will guide Ghost Town argonauts to these remnants of the "Kern Valley Diggin's" rich history.
Many believe that Silver City is haunted by spirits from that past and the site is listed in the �National Directory of Haunted Places�. Which brings to mind the question: Since most of the buildings were moved to the present site over a quarter of a century ago, did the ghost's move with the buildings or move in because it looked like home? Corlew, once a doubting Thomas, heard many stories over the years of poltergeist activity.  But it was only after seven years of working on the site that he had his first conclusive sighting. �When you and two other people (all sober!) see a heavy miners lunch pail fly twelve feet across a room unaided you become a believer real quick�, says  Corlew. Others have reported bottles floating in the air and doors and windows opening and closing by themselves.
The infamous violin hanging in front of the general store sometimes seems to move by itself and many have heard the strings pluck as they walk by, according to Corlew.  Reporter Kurt Rivera from  Bakersfield�s Channel 17 News (TV) station called Silver City �The most haunted site in Kern County� after he and his television crew spent an eerie night in The Apalatea/Burlando house a few years back.Take a look at some of the many photos taken at Silver City by visitors and staff alike over the years and decide for yourself... apparition and orb photos.
In addition, check out Biography Channel�s �My Ghost Story� video which explores decades of alleged hauntings on site in a great 9 minute video available for download on demand see link below.
Now open year round: Open 7 days per week 10 AM-4 PM, 5 PM weekends, May 15th through September 14th. Open weekends only 10 AM-4 PM September 15th through May 14th. Often open other days by chance (and anytime by appointment)Open all major holidays except New Years Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas Day.

Friday, 17 April 2015


For two decades, Fort Bowie strategically controlled Apache Springs along the Butterfield Trail in the Arizona Territory in its conflict with the Chiricahuas. Gen. George Crook led his cavalry from Bowie and Fort Huachuca for ten months across the Southwest and into Mexico to find Geronimo and negotiate his first surrender in 1885-’86. At the time of European encounter, they, with their close kinsmen of the Tchihende and Ndendahe groups, were living in 15 million acres (61,000 km2) of territory in southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona in the United States, and in northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today, only two tribes of the Chiricahua Apache located in the United States arefederally recognized: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, OklahomaAmphlett Brothers Drug and Jewelry Store in Apacheand the Chiricahua tribe located on theMescalero Mescalero Apache Tribal Offices Community Center New Mexico.jpgApache reservation near Ruidoso, New  Mexico.
Tsokanende (Chiricahua) Apache division was once led, since the beginning of the 18th century, by chiefs as Pisago Cabezon, Relles, Posito Moraga, Yrigollen, Tapilà, Teboca, Vivora, Miguel Narbona, Esquinaline, and finally Cochise (whose name was derived from the Apache word Cheis, meaning "having the quality of oak") and, after his death, his sons Tahzayand, later, Naiche, under the guardianship of Cochise's war chief Nahilzay, and the independent chiefs Chihuahua, Skinyaand Pionsenay; Tchihende (Mimbreño) people was led, during the same period, by chiefs as Juan Josè Compa, Fuerte a.k.a.Soldado Fiero, Mangas Coloradas, Cuchillo Negro, Delgadito, Ponce, Nana, Victorio, Loco, Mangus; Ndendahe Apache people, in the meanwhile, was led by Mahko, Mano Mocha, Coleto Amarillo, Luis, Laceres, Felipe, Natiza, Juh and Goyaałé(known to the Americans as Geronimo);Edward S. Curtis Geronimo Apache cp01002v.jpg after Victorio's death, Nana, Geronimo, Mangus (youngest Mangas Colaradas' son) and youngest Cochise's son Naiche were the last leaders of Central Apaches, and their mixed Apache group was the last to continue to resist U.S. government control of the American Southwest.
Several loosely affiliated bands of Apache came improperly to be usually known as the Chiricahuas. These included theChokonen (recte: Tsokanende), the Chihenne (recte: Tchihende), the Nednai (Nednhi) and Bedonkohe (recte, both of them together: Ndendahe). Today, all are commonly referred to as Chiricahua, but they were not historically a single band nor the same Apache division, being more correctly identified, all together, as "Central Apaches".
Many other bands and groups of Apachean language-speakers ranged over eastern Arizona and the American Southwest. The bands that are grouped under the Chiricahua term today had much history together: they intermarried and lived alongside each other, and they also occasionally fought with each other. They formed short-term as well as longer alliances that have caused scholars to classify them as one people.
The Apachean groups and the Navajo peoples were part of the Athabaskan migration into the North American continent from Asia, across the Bering Strait from Siberia.
 As the people moved south and east into North America, groups splintered off and became differentiated by language and culture over time. Some anthropologists believe that the Apache and the Navajo were pushed south and west into what is now New Mexico and Arizona by pressure from other Great Plains Indians, such as the Comanche and KiowaIn Summer, Kiowa.jpg. Among the last of such splits were those that resulted in the formation of the different Apachean bands whom the later Europeans encountered: the southwestern Apache groups and the Navajo. Although both speaking forms of Southern Athabaskan, the Navajo and Apache have become culturally distinct.

From the beginning of EuropeanAmerican/Apache relations, there was conflict between them, as they competed for land and other resources, and had very different cultures. Their encounters were preceded by more than 100 years of Spanish colonial and Mexican incursions and settlement on the Apache lands.
The United States settlers were newcomers to the competition for land and resources in the Southwest, but they inherited its complex history, and brought their own attitudes with them about American Indians and how to use the land. By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the US took on the responsibility to prevent and punish cross-border incursions by Apache who were raiding in Mexico.
The Apache viewed the United States colonists with ambivalence, and in some cases, enlisted them as allies in the early years against the Mexicans. In 1852, the US and some of the Chiricahua signed a treaty, but it had little lasting effect.
During the 1850s, American miners and settlers began moving into Chiricahua territory, beginning encroachment that had been renewed in the migration to the Southwest of the previous two decades.
This forced the Apachean people to change their lives as nomads, free on the land. The US Army defeated them and forced them into the confinement of reservation life, on lands ill-suited for subsistence farming, which the US proffered as the model of civilization. Today, the Chiricahua are preserving their culture as much as possible, while forging new relationships with the peoples around them. The Chiricahua are a living and vibrant culture, a part of the greater American whole and yet distinct based on their history and culture.Farny 44.jpg
The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and theApache peoples. The wars began in the 1600s with the arrival of Spanish colonists in present day New Mexico. War between the Mexicans and the Apache was especially intense from 1831 into the 1850s. Thereafter, Mexican operations against the Apache coincided with the Apache Wars of the United States, such as during the Victorio Campaign.
 Mexico continued to operate against hostile Apache bands as late as 1915.Victorio '​s WarVictorio Chiricahua Apache Chief.jpg, or the Victorio Campaign, was an armed conflict between the Apache followers of Chief Victorio, the United States, and Mexico beginning in September 1879. Following his escape from the San Carlos Indian Reservation in southeastern Arizona, Victorio led a guerrilla war across the Southwest and northern Mexico. Many engagements were fought until the Mexican Army killed Victorio and defeated his warriors in October 1880. After Victorio's death, Chief Nana continued the war into 1881. Following the Battle of Cibecue Creek, in August 1881, Nana and his band joined Geronimo


Another View... this time of Ben Hur Deluxe

Wednesday, 15 April 2015

apache station

File:Photograph of Bezaleel W. Armstrong, ca. 1846 - NARA - 530873.tifCooke's Springs were named for Philip St. George Cooke 2nd U.S. Dragoons the former commander of the Mormon Battalion,File:Mormon Battalion Ed Fraughton.jpg that was exploring this area of New Mexico in 1853. It was the only large supply of fresh water between Mesilla and the Mimbres River for wagons heading to California on the Southern Immigrant Trail as well as the later Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach route. The Cooke's Springs Station of the Butterfield Overland Mail was located near Cooke's Springs from 1858 to 1861.
Cookes Springs were located at the eastern mouth of the upper part of Cookes Canyon, a narrow gap in the Mimbres Mountains. Between 1848 and 1861 the pass was a dangerous place for travelers who were often ambushed and killed by the Apache as they passed through it. Following the Bascom AffairAfter much pressure from serving Officer's there was a revision to the old civil war uniforms authorised in 1872, it was however some time before these new uniforms were delivered to the far western CT606 M1883 Campaign Shirtoutposts. On campaign the men continued to wear the civil war uniforms that were still in plentiful supply, whilst the new uniform was kept for dress occassions. These are our M1872 Mounted trousers with top opening pockets & re-inforced seat, this pair has Sergeants 1,1/2" yellw wool chevron stripe on the outside leg, CT607 1884 Pattern trousers1884 Pattern trousersCT607Inf 1884 Infantry pattern trousers1884 Infantry pattern trousersCT604 M1872 Cavalry Trousers
The Bascom Affair began on January 27, 1861, when Tonto Apache Indian parties raided the ranch of John Ward at Sonoita Creek, stealing several livestock and kidnapping Ward's 12-year-old stepson Felix Ward.Ward complained about the raid to the nearby military authority, Lieutenant Colonel Morrison, the commandant of Fort Buchanan, Arizona,Fort Buchanan ruins 1914.jpg who directed Lieutenant George Nicholas Bascom and a large group of infantry to attempt to recover the boy. Bascom and his men were unable to locate the boy or the tribe. Bascom determined that the raid was done by Chiricahua Apache Indians. Morrison ordered Bascom to use whatever means necessary to punish the kidnappers and recapture the boy.
Bascom, Ward, and 54 soldiers journeyed east to the Apache Pass, arriving on February 3, 1861, and met Sergeant Daniel Robinson, who would accompany them for the rest of the expedition. Bascom convinced an Indian leader named CochiseCochise sculpture (Cień).jpgto meet with him. Suspicious of Bascom's plans, Cochise brought with him his brother Coyuntwa, two nephews, his wife, and his two children.At the meeting, Cochise claimed he knew nothing of the affair. Doubting the Indian's honesty, Bascom attempted to imprison him and his family in a tent to be held hostage, but Cochise was able to escape with only a leg wound. Bascom met Cochise at Apache PassApachePassAZ.JPGand captured him. Cochise escaped and Bascom captured five members of Cochise's family in retaliation, prompting Cochise to lay ambushes and capture four Americans whom he offered to trade for his family members.
 things were even worse as the Apache, formerly friendly to the stage company destroyed most of the stations and destroyed many coaches and killed their passengers and for over a decade later hundreds of other travelers. Cooke's Pass was a favored location for these ambushes and it acquired the name Massacre Canyon after incidents like the Battle of Cookes Canyon.

Tuesday, 14 April 2015

the life and times of the earl of essex

ex, (10 November 1565
 – 25 February 1601) was an English nobleman and a favourite of Elizabeth I. Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in 1599. In 1601 he led an abortive coup d'état against the government and was executed for treason.Essex was born on 10 November 1565 at Netherwood near Bromyard, in Herefordshire, the son of Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essexand Lettice KnollysHis maternal great-grandmother Mary Boleyn was a sister of Anne Boleyn, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, making him a first-cousin-twice-removed of the Queen.
The Nine Years' War  took place in Ireland from 1594 to 1603. It was fought between the forces of Gaelic Irish chieftains Hugh O'Neill of Tír Eoghain, Hugh Roe O'Donnell of Tír Chonaill and their allies, against English rule in Ireland. The war was fought in all parts of the country, but mainly in the northern province of Ulster. It ended in defeat for the Irish chieftains, which led to their exile in the Flight of the Earls and to the Plantation of Ulster.
This was the organised colonisation  of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by people from Scotland and England. Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606,while official plantation controlled by King James I of England and VI of Scotland began in 1609. All land owned by Irish chieftains of the Uí Néill and Uí Domhnaill (along with those of their supporters) was confiscated and used to settle the colonists. This land comprised an estimated half a million acres (2,000 km²) in the counties Tyrconnell,File:Co Donegal.jpg  Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan, Coleraine and Armagh. Most of the counties AntrimFile:Island of Ireland location map Antrim.svgand Down were privately colonised
The "British tenants", a term applied to the colonists, were mostly from Scotland and England. They were required to be English-speaking and Protestant. The Scottish colonists were mostly Presbyterian and the English mostly members of the Church of England. The Plantation of Ulster was the biggest of the Plantations of Ireland. Ulster was colonised to prevent further rebellion, as it had been the region most resistant to English control during the preceding century
The war against O'Neill and his allies was the largest conflict fought by England in the Elizabethan era. At the height of the conflict (1600–1601) more than 18,000 soldiers were fighting in the English army in Ireland.By contrast, the English army assisting the Dutch during the Eighty Years' War was never more than 12,000 strong at any one time.

Essex was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley Castle, Staffordshire and at Lamphey, Pembrokeshire in Wales and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge.His father died in 1576. The new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley.File:William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley from NPG (2).jpg On 21 September 1578 his mother married Robert Dudley, File:Robert Dudley Leicester.jpgEarl of Leicester, Elizabeth I's long-standing favourite and Robert Devereux's godfather.
Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour. In 1590 he married Frances Walsingham,File:Frances Walsingham.jpg daughter of Sir Francis WalsinghamFile:Sir Francis Walsingham by John De Critz the Elder.jpg and widow of Sir Philip Sidney,File:Sir Philip Sidney from NPG.jpg by whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, Leicester's nephew, died at the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex also distinguished himsel
The Battle of Zutphen was a confrontation of the Eighty Years' WarFile:Veen01.jpg on 22 September 1586, near ZutphenFile:Zutphen Walburgiakriche.jpg (Warnsveld), the Netherlands.File:Warnsveld, kerk foto10 2010-07-20 12.07.JPG It was fought between forces of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, aided by the English, against the Spanish, who sought to regain the northern Netherlands.
Important English soldiers included Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Peregrine Bertie,File:Peregrine Bertie, 13th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, oil painting.jpgGeorge Whetstone, Henry Unton, and Robert Sidney, whose brother, Philip, was mortally wounded during the battle and died in Arnhem at the age of 31. A story about Sir Philip Sidney (intended as an illustration of his noble character) is that he gave his water-bottle to another wounded soldier, saying, "Thy need is greater than mine". Dudley knighted Welsh mercenary Roger Williams for his performance during the battle.(above Willie 30mm at Tradition)
Born in Penrhos, Monmouthshire, Williams was said by Anthony Wood to have attended Brasenose College, File:Oxford Brasenose College.jpgOxford. He spent most of his life soldiering, mainly on the continent. He was in the Netherlands fighting on behalf of William the Silent, File:WilliamOfOrange1580.jpgPrince of Orange, when the latter was assassinated, and helped capture the assassin, Balthasar Gérard.
Balthasar Gérard . 1557 – 14 July 1584)  the assassin  killed William I in DelftFile:Delft - Visbrug.jpg on July 10, 1584, by shooting him twice with a pistol, and was afterwards tried, convicted, and gruesomely executed.After the reward offered by Philip of spain  was published Gérard left for Luxembourg where he learned that Juan de Jáuregui was already preparing to attempt the assassination, but did not succeed.Juan de Jáuregui (1562 – March 18, 1582) was killed trying to assassinate Prince William I of Orange. He was a Biscayan by his birth in Bilbao.
In 1582, he was in the service of a Spanish fur merchant, Gaspar de Añastro from Vitoria, who resided at Antwerp. De Añastro had lost three ships and was tempted by the supposed reward of 80,000 ducats and the habit of the Order of Santiago offered by Philip II of SpainFile:Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b.jpg for the assassination of William the Silent, prince of Orange, and being himself without courage to undertake the task, De Añastro (with the help of his cashier Antonio de Venero, a 19-year-old also from Bilbao, and the Dominican monk Antonio Timmerman, from Dunkirk) persuaded his poor accounting assistant Jáuregui to attempt the murder for the sum of 2877 crowns.
On Sunday, March 18, 1582, as the prince came out of his dining-room, Jáuregui offered him a petition, and William had no sooner taken it into his hand than Jáuregui fired a pistol at his head. Although the pistol was badly designed and malfunctioned, one bullet pierced the neck below the right ear and passed out at the left jaw-bone, but William ultimately recovered. Jáuregui was pierced on the spot by the sword of a knight in the retinue and finally killed by the halberdiers.
Upon a search on the corpse, he was found to carry two pieces of castor fur, several crosses and amulets, a green wax candle, and several papers written in Spanish.
When William recovered, he asked a merciful execution for the survivors: Venero and Timmerman were garotted on March 28, then decapitated and quartered for public exhibition. De Añastro had left for Wallonia on March 13. He claimed the reward before Alessandro Farnese. In this case, the reward was the 25,000 escudos, nobility title and pardon actually promised by Philip II on June 1580.
Although William suffered severe injuries, he survived thanks to the care of his wife Charlotte of Bourbon and his sister Mary. While William slowly recovered, the intensive care by Charlotte took its toll, and she died on May 5.
William was finally shot dead by the French Catholic Balthasar Gérard on 10 July 1584.picture, William of Orange, William the Silent, Balthasar Gerard, assassin, assassination, pistol, murder
The case was published in French, Flemish and Spanish by Christopher Plantin as Bref recueil de l'assassinat, commis en la personne du Très Illustre Prince, Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange, Conte de Nassau, Marquis de la Vere, &c par Iean Iauregui Espaignol, Antwerp, 1582.
Among the published writings, there was a religious vouch promising donations to Jesus Christ, Our Lady of Begoña, Our Lady of Arantzazu, Our Lady of Guadalupe at HondarribiaFile:Hondarribia Iglesia.jpg, and the Christ of Burgos. There also was a letter appealing to the goodwill of the Antwerpers. In March 1584 he went to Trier,File:Hauptmarkt Trier.jpgwhere he put his plan before the regent of the Jesuits but another Jesuit convinced him to change his original scheme and go to the prince of Parma. In Tournai, after holding counsel with aFranciscan, Father Gery, Gérard wrote a letter, a copy of which was deposited with the guardian of the convent, and the original presented personally to the Prince of Parma. In the letter Gérard wrote, in part, "The vassal ought always to prefer justice and the will of the king to his own life
At first the prince thought him unfit but after consulting Haultepenne and others with the letter he was assigned to Christoffel d'Assonleville, who spoke with Gérard, and asked him to put this in writing, which he did on 11 April 1584. He requested absolution from the prince of Parma "as he was about to keep company for some time with heretics and atheists, and in some sort to conform himself to their customs".
For his first expenses he begged for 50 crowns which were refused. "I will provide myself out of my own purse", Gérard told Assonleville, "and within six weeks you will hear of me." Assonleville responded: "Go forth, my son ... and if you succeed in your enterprise, the King will fulfill all his promises, and you will gain an immortal name besides."
On Sunday, 8 July 1584, Gérard loitered in the courtyard examining the premises. A halberdier asked him why he was waiting there. He excused himself by saying that in his shabby clothing and without new shoes he was unfit to join the congregation in the church opposite. The halberdier unsuspectingly arranged a gift of 50 crowns for Gérard, who, the following morning purchased a pair of pistols from a soldier, haggling the price for a long time because the soldier couldn't supply the particular chopped bullets or slugs he wanted.File:Portret van Balthasar Geeraerts.jpg Williams was recognised as an expert on military matters by his contemporaries, and wrote A brief discourse of war (1590).
In 1585 he was sent to the Low Countries with an army under the Earl of Leicester's command, to confront the Spanish forces under the Duke of Parma. Though the campaign was not a success, Leicester wrote: "Roger Williams is worth his weight in gold, for he is noe more valiant than he is wise" and he was duly knighted after the Battle of Zutphen in 1586 by Leicester.
Williams accompanied Sir Francis Drake to Portugal, and later fought on behalf of the French Huguenots.
In 1587, Williams and his regiment were in Sluys (Sluis) when the Duke of Parma laid siege to the town. After a heroic defence, marked by acts of heroism and genius on both sides, the English and Dutch defenders were forced to surrender on 4 August.
Parma gave generous terms; the garrison marched out with all their banners and baggage and all the honours of war. Parma sought Williams out and offered him a command where he would not have to fight either his fellow-countrymen or his co-religionists. Williams replied politely that if he ever fought in the service of any other than his queen, Elizabeth, it would be in the service "of that hero of the Protestant cause, King Henry of Navarre." He went on to serve Henry during the late 1580s and 1590s. He also fought for the Protestant Elector of CologneFile:Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg.jpg,Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, and fought with the Dutch soldier of fortune, Martin Schenck von Nydeggen in Westphalia.File:Maarten Schenk van Nydeggen (1540-1589).jpg
 The battle was won by the Spanish. Months later, officers Stanley and York gave Zutphen up to the Spanish, along with the city of Deventer.
fEssex first came to court in 1584, and by 1587 had become a favourite of the Queen, who relished his lively mind and eloquence, as well as his skills as a showman and in courtly love. In June 1587 he replaced the Earl of Leicester as Master of the Horse. After Leicester's death in 1588, the Queen transferred the late Earl's royal monopoly on sweet wines to Essex, providing him with revenue from taxes.
Essex underestimated the Queen, however, and his later behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal secretary, Robert Cecil.File:Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury by John De Critz the Elder (2).jpg On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, the Queen reportedly cuffed an insolent Essex round the ear, prompting him to half draw his sword on her.
In 1589, he took part in Francis Drake's English Armada, File:1590 or later Marcus Gheeraerts, Sir Francis Drake Buckland Abbey, Devon.jpgwhich sailed to Spain in an unsuccessful attempt to press home the English advantage following the defeat of the Spanish Armada; the Queen had ordered him not to take part in the expedition, but he only returned upon the failure to take Lisbon. In 1591, he was given command of a force sent to the assistance of King Henry IV of France.File:HenriIV.jpg In 1596, he distinguished himself by the capture of Cadiz.File:Insula Gaditana.jpg During the Islands Voyage expedition to the Azores in 1597File:Azoren (14).jpg, with Walter Raleigh as his second in command, he defied the Queen's orders, pursuing the treasure fleet without first defeating the Spanish battle fleet
The Islands Voyage was an English campaign against the Portuguese colonies in the Azores in 1597 as part of the Anglo–Spanish War. It was led by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex with Sir Walter Raleigh as his second in command - other participants included Jacob Astley,File:Hand of John Heydon.jpgHand of Sir John Heydon (1588 – 1653),
cuted off in a duel with Sir Robert Mansel
in January 1600. Robert Mansell, and the poet John Donne.As stated  Essex defied Elizabeth I's orders, pursuing the treasure fleet without first defeating the Spanish battle fleet commanded by Alonso de Bazán, and so the voyage proved a failure. It was thus the last major expedition sent to sea by Elizabeth I and contributed to Essex's decline in favour with Elizabeth.Essex's greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a post which he talked himself into in 1599. The Nine Years War (1595–1603) was in its middle stages, and no English commander had been successful. More military force was required to defeat the Irish chieftains, led by Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, and supplied from Spain and Scotland.File:Aodh Mór Uî Néill (anglicisé comme) Hugh The Great O'Neill) (c. 1550 – 20 July 1616).JPG
Essex led the largest expeditionary force ever sent to Ireland — 16,000 troops — with orders to put an end to the rebellion. He departed London to the cheers of the Queen's subjects, and it was expected that the rebellion would be crushed instantly. But the limits of Crown resources and of the Irish campaigning season dictated another course. Essex had declared to the Privy Council that he would confront O'Neill in Ulster. But instead, Essex led his army into southern Ireland, fought a series of inconclusive engagements, wasted his funds, and dispersed his army into garrisons. The Irish forces then won several victories. Instead of facing O'Neill in battle, Essex had to make a truce with the rebel leader that was considered humiliating to the Crown and to the detriment of English authority.
In all of his campaigns, Essex secured the loyalties of his officers by conferring knighthoods, an honour which the Queen herself dispensed sparingly. By the end of his time in Ireland, more than half the knights in England owed their rank to Essex. The rebels were said to have joked that "he never drew sword but to make knights." But his practice of conferring knighthoods could in time enable Essex to challenge the powerful factions at Cecil's command.THE EARL OF ESSEX PUB IN DANBURY ST ISLINGTON FLYING THE COLOURS LOL
He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, serving from 1598 to 1601.Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great seal, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 September 1599, and reached London four days later. The Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in her bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palace,File:Nonsuch.JPG before she was properly wigged or gowned. On that day, the Privy Council met three times, and it seemed his disobedience might go unpunished, although the Queen did confine him to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender."

During his confinement at York House, Essex probably communicated with King James VI of Scotland through File:James I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpgLord Mountjoy,File:Sir Charles Blount c 1594.jpg although any plans he may have had at that time to help the Scots king capture the English throne came to nothing. In October, Mountjoy was appointed to replace him in Ireland, and matters seemed to look up for the Earl. In November, the queen was reported to have said that the truce with O'Neill was "so seasonably made... as great good... has grown by it." Others in the Council were willing to justify Essex's return to Ireland, on the grounds of the urgent necessity of a briefing by the commander-in-chief.Essex appeared before the full Council on 29 September, when he was compelled to stand before the Council during a five hour interrogation. The Council — his uncle William Knollys included — took a quarter of an hour to compile a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley inFile:SirRichardBerkeleyGauntsChapelBristol.jpg his own York House on 1 October,

York House in the Strand in London was one of a string of mansions which once stood along the route from the City of London to the royal court at Westminster. It was built as the London home of the Bishops of Norwich not later than 1237, and around 300 years later it was acquired by King Henry VIII. It came to be known as York House when it was granted to the Archbishop of York in 1556 and retained that name for the rest of its existence. Its neighbors were Suffolk House (later Northumberland House), on the west and Durham House, London residence of the Bishop of Durham, to the east. For about seventy years from 1558 it was leased to various Lord Keepers of the Great Seal of England. In the 1620s it was acquired by the royal favourite George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, and after an interlude during the English Civil War it was returned to George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who sold it to developers for £30,000 in 1672. He made it a condition of the sale that his name and full title should be commemorated by George Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, and Buckingham Street. Some of these streets are still extant, though Of Alley has been renamed York Place, Duke Street is now John Adam Street and George Street is now York Buildings. Villiers Street runs along the eastern side of Charing Cross railway station.

The Italianate York Water Gate, built about 1626 (2009)
The mansions facing in the Strand were built where they were partly because they had direct access from their garden fronts to the Thames, which was then a preferred transport artery. The York Watergate (also known as Buckingham Watergate), built ca. 1626, survives, now marooned 150 yards (137 m) from the river, within the Embankment Gardens, due to the construction of the Thames Embankment. With the Banqueting House it is one of the few surviving reminders in London of the Italianate court style of Charles I. Its boldly rusticated design in a confident Serlian manner has been attributed to Sir Balthazar Gerbier, to Inigo Jones himself and to the sculptor and master-mason Nicholas Stone. It was restored in the 1950s.

Sampson and a Philistine, by Giambologna
The York House Conference that assembled there in February 1626 ended unsatisfactorily with the final rupture of Puritan members of Parliament with Buckingham. York House was the setting for a masque presented before their majesties in May 1627, in which Buckingham appeared followed by "Envy, with divers open-mouthed dogs' heads representing the people’s barking, while next came Fame and Truth", just before his departure for his unsuccessful second foray against France.
The first Duke granted lodgings at York House to the painter Orazio Gentileschi,File:Orazio Gentileschi.jpg and to Sir Balthazar Gerbier,File:Balthasar Gerbier - Het Gulden Cabinet.png diplomat and sometime painter; though after the Duke's assassination in 1628, the Duchess tried to expel him, it was in Gerbier's lodgings that Peter Paul Rubens soujourned during his visit to London this following year. An inventory of the contents of York House drawn up in 1635 is mined by scholars both for the light it sheds on one of the handful of great art collections formed in the circle of Charles I, and the furnishings of a fashionable Early Stuart nobleman's residence. In the 'Great Chamber' twenty-two paintings were displayed with fifty-nine pieces of Roman sculpture, many of which were heads. In the 'Gallery' were a further thirty-one further heads and statues. Apparently the only modern sculpture at York House wasFile:Goltzius-Bologna.pngGiambologna's SSamson and a Philistine, a royal gift from Philip IV of Spain to Charles I, who passed it to his favourite, Buckingham.
In the early 19th century the designation York House was revived by the palatial York House, built in the Stable Yard, St. James's Palace, for the Duke of York, brother of George IV and heir apparent. Foundations were begun for a designs by Robert Smirke, who was quickly replaced by Benjamin Dean Wyatt and his brother Philip; when the Duke died in 1827, deeply in debt and the house unfinished, it was subsequently completed as Stafford House; its gilded interiors by Sir Charles Barry for Stafford's heir, the Duke of Sutherland, inspired Queen Victoria's famous remark about "coming from my house to your palace".
The name is carried today by a commercial building in Portugal Street, Kingsway, London.
File:York Watergate.jpg and he blamed Cecil and Raleigh for the queen's hostility. File:York Water Gate, Victoria Embankment 1.jpgRaleigh advised Cecil to see to it that Essex did not recover power, and Essex appeared to heed advice to retire from public life, despite his popularity with the public.
Cecil kept up the pressure and, on 5 June 1600, Essex was tried before a commission of 18 men. He had to hear the charges and evidence on his knees. Essex was convicted, was deprived of public office, and was returned to virtual confinement.In August, his freedom was granted, but the source of his basic income—the sweet wines monopoly—was not renewed. His situation had become desperate, and he shifted "from sorrow and repentance to rage and rebellion." In early 1601, he began to fortify Essex House, his town mansion on the Strand, and gathered his followers.The property occupied the site where the Outer Temple, part of the London headquarters of the Knights Templar, had previously stood , and was immediately adjacent to the Middle Temple, then one of the four principal Inns of Court.
The house fronted The Strand and was adjacent to the Middle Temple File:Middle Temple by Thomas Shepherd c.1830.jpg of the London headquarters of the Knights Templar. It was re-named Essex House after being inherited by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex in 1588. The house was substantial. In 1590, it was recorded as having 42 bedrooms, plus a picture gallery, kitchens, outhouses, a banqueting suite and a chapel.
Essex’s mother, Lettice Knollys, leased out the house for a while, but she moved in later with her new husband, Sir Christopher Blount, as well as her son and his family. After the executions of Blount and Essex, she continued to live there until her death, leasing part of the house to James Hay, the first Earl of Carlisle. The house then became the property ofRobert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, who leased part of it to his brother-in-law, WilliamFile:William Seymour, Marquess of Hertford, later Duke of Somerset (1588-1660), Attributed to Gilbert Jackson (1622 - 1640).jpg Seymour, 1st Marquess of Hertford. After the English Civil War, the family lost ownership as a result of their debts. Following the Restoration and the death of William Seymour, Sir Orlando Bridgeman File:Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman by Robert White 1682.jpglived in the house for a time. When the Duchess of Somerset died in 1674, she left the house to her granddaughter, whose husband, Sir Thomas Thynne, sold it, along with the adjoining lands and properties.
The main part of the house was demolished some time between 1674 and 1679. Essex Street was built on part of the site. One of those buildings was used in the mid-1770s as aDissenters' meeting house known as the Essex Street Chapel, where Unitarianism was first preached in England. The denominational headquarters are still on the site, now called Essex Hall. Their building footprint is believed to include the Tudor chapel of Essex House On the morning of 8 February, he marched out of Essex House with a party of nobles and gentlemen (some later involved in the 1605 Gunpowder Plot) and entered the city of London in an attempt to force an audience with the Queen. Cecil immediately had him proclaimed a traitor. Finding no support among the Londoners, Essex retreated from the city, and surrendered after the Crown forces besieged Essex House.On 19 February 1601, Essex was tried before his peers on charges of treason. Part of the evidence showed that he was in favour of toleration of religious dissent. In his own evidence, he countered the charge of dealing with Catholics, swearing that "papists have been hired and suborned to witness against me." Essex also asserted that Cecil had stated that none in the world but the Infanta of SpainFile:Heraldic Crown of Spanish Infantes.svg had right to the Crown of England, whereupon Cecil (who had been following the trial at a doorway concealed behind some tapestry) stepped out to make a dramatic denial, going down on his knees to give thanks to God for the opportunity. The witness whom Essex expected to confirm this allegation, his uncle William Knollys, was called and admitted there had once been read in Cecil's presence a book treating such matters (possibly either The book of succession supposedly by an otherwise unknown R. Doleman but probably really by Robert Persons File:Robert Persons.gifor A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crown of England explicitly mentioned to be by Parsons, in which a Catholic successor friendly to Spain was favored). However he denied he had heard Cecil make the statement. Thanking God again, Cecil expressed his gratitude that Essex was exposed as a traitor while he himself was found an honest man.
Essex was found guilty and, on 25 February 1601, was beheaded on Tower Green, becoming the last person to be beheaded in the Tower of London. It was reported to have taken three strokes by the executioner Thomas Derrick to complete the beheading. At Sir Walter Raleigh's own treason trial later on, in 1603, it was alleged that Raleigh had said to a co-conspirator, "Do not, as my Lord Essex did, take heed of a preacher. By his persuasion he confessed, and made himself guilty." In that same trial, Raleigh also denied that he had stood at a window during the execution of Essex's sentence, disdainfully puffing out tobacco smoke in sight of the condemned man.
Some days before the execution, Captain Thomas Lee File:Captain Thomas Lee by Marcus Gheeraerts.jpgwas apprehended as he kept watch on the door to the Queen's chambers. His plan had been to confine her until she signed a warrant for the release of Essex. Capt. Lee, who had served in Ireland with the Earl, and who acted as go-between with the Ulster rebels, was tried and put to death the next day.
Devereux's conviction for treason meant that the earldom of Essex was forfeit, and his son did not inherit the title. However, after the Queen's death, King James I reinstated the earldom in favour of the disinherited son, Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of EssexFile:Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex.jpg