Saturday, 30 June 2012

the spanish rebellion

Under the pretext of reinforcing the Franco-Spanish army occupying Portugal, French Imperial troops began filing into Spain; the populace greeted them with enthusiasm in spite of growing diplomatic unease. In February 1808 Napoleon ordered the French commanders to seize key Spanish fortresses, and in doing so he had officially File:Defensa del Parque de Artillería de Monteleón.jpgturned on his ally. A French column, disguised as a convoy of wounded, took Barcelona on 29 February by persuading the authorities to open the city's gates. Many commanders were not particularly concerned about the fate of the ruling regime, nor were they in any position to fight. (When Mariano Alvarez de Castrogarrisoned the Barcelona citadel against the French, his own superiors ordered him to stand down.)
The Spanish Royal Army of 100,000 men found itself paralysed: under-equipped, frequently leaderless, confused by the turmoil in Madrid and scattered from Portugal to the Balearic Islands.File:Port de soller majorca spain closeup arp.jpg Fifteen thousand of its finest troops, (Pedro CaroFile:Romana.PNG, 3rd Marquis of la Romana's Division of the North) had been lent to Napoleon in 1807 and remained stationed in Denmark under French command. Only the peripheries contained armies of any strength: Galicia, with Joaquín BlakeFile:Blake y Joyes.jpg y Joyes's troops, and Andalusia, under Francisco Javier Castaños. File:Francisco Javier Castanos.jpgThe French were consequently able to seize much of northeastern Spain by coups de main, and any hope of turning back the invasion was stillborn.

To secure his gains Napoleon pursued a series of intrigues against the Spanish royal family. A coup d'état instigated by the Spanish aristocrats forced Charles IVFile:Carlos IV de rojo.jpg from his throne and replaced him with his son FerdinandFile:Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya.jpg. Napoleon removed the royals to BayonneFile:Bayonne Adour HdV.jpg and forced them both to abdicate on 5 May, handing the throne to his brother Joseph Bonaparte.When his father's abdication was extorted by a popular riot at Aranjuez in March 1808, he ascended the throne but turned again to Napoleon, in the hope that the emperor would support him.Toy Soldiers at Bugle and Drum, Stratford upon Avon He was in his turn forced to make an abdication on 6 May 1808 but his father had relinquished his rights to the Spanish throne on 5 May 1808 (the previous day) in favour of Emperor Napoleon, so Ferdinand effectively had given the throne to Napoleon. Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the File:Valencay-chateau-1.jpgChateau of Valençay.Five years later after experiencing serious reverses on many fronts, Emperor Napoleon agreed to acknowledge Ferdinand VII as king of Spain on 11 December 1813 and signed the Treaty of Valençay, so that the king could return to Spain. This, however, did not happen until Napoleon was nearly defeated by the allied powers several months later. The Spanish people, blaming the liberal, enlightened policies of the Francophiles (afrancesados) for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too closely to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the intervening years a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America. Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy he had relinquished six years earlier. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812. Before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, but, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so.File:Joseph Bonaparte (by Wicar).jpg A puppet Spanish council approved the new king, but the usurpation provoked a popular uprising that eventually spread throughout the country. The Spanish revolt was the first example of the nationalism of another country being turned against Napoleon, although it was led largely by priests and nobles who stood for the conservative values of the old regime. On 2 May, the citizens of Madrid rose up in rebellionFile:El dos de mayo de 1808 en Madrid.jpg against the French occupation, killing some 150 French soldiers, before the uprising was put down by Joachim File:Murat2.jpgMurat's elite Imperial Guard and Mamluk cavalry, which crashed into the city, trampling the rioters.
In 1820 ferdinands misrule provoked a revolt in favor of the Constitution of 1812 which began with a mutiny of the troops under Col. Rafael del RiegoFile:Rafael-riego2554.JPG and the king was quickly made prisoner. He grovelled to the insurgents as he had done to his parents. Ferdinand had restored the Jesuits upon his return; now the Society had become identified with repression and absolutism among the liberals, who attacked them: twenty-five Jesuits were slain in Madrid in 1822. For the rest of the 19th century, expulsions and re-establishment of the Jesuits would continue to be touchmarks of liberal or authoritarian political regimes.
At the beginning of 1823, as a result of the Congress of Verona, the French invaded Spain "invoking the God of St Louis, for the sake of preserving the throne of Spain to a descendant of Henry IVFile:HenriIV.jpg, and of reconciling that fine kingdom with Europe." When in May the revolutionary party carried Ferdinand to Cádiz, he continued to make promises of amendment until he was free.
When freed after the Battle of TrocaderoFile:Situationsplan von Cadiz.jpg and the fall of Cádiz he revenged himself with a ferocity which disgusted his far from liberal allies. In violation of his oath to grant an amnesty he avenged himself, for three years of coercion, by killing on a scale which left his "rescuers" sickened and horrified. The Duke of Angoulême, powerless to intervene, made known his protest against Ferdinand's actions by refusing the Spanish decorations Ferdinand offered him for his military services.
During his last years Ferdinand's energy was abated. He no longer changed ministers every few months as a sport, and he allowed some of them to conduct the current business of government. He became torpid, bloated and unpleasant to look at. His last ten years of reign (1823–1833) are generally known as the "Ominous Decade", and saw the relentless restoration of a reactionary absolutism, the re-establishment of archaic university programs and the suppression of any opposition, both of the Liberal Party and of the reactionary revolt (known as "War of the Agraviados") which broke out in 1827 in Catalonia and other regions.
After his fourth marriage, with Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two SiciliesFile:Mariacristina.jpg in 1829, he was persuaded by his wife to set aside the law of succession of Philip V,File:Felipe V de España.jpg which gave a preference to all the males of the family in Spain over the females. His marriage had brought him only two daughters. The change in the order of succession established by his dynasty in Spain angered a large part of the nation and led to a civil war, the Carlist Wars.
When well he consented to the change under the influence of his wife. When ill he was terrified by priestly advisers who were partisans of his brother CarlosFile:Carlos María Isidro.JPG. Ferdinand died on 29 September 1833 in Madrid.
King Ferdinand VII kept a diary during the troubled years 1820–1823 which has been published by the Count de Casa Valencia.

scottish regiments

Wednesday, 27 June 2012

Rebel Cavalry in the American Civil war

 There was noboston massacre and no paul revere's ride and the no no nos of what never happened are endless. the Boston massacre most likely resulted in one person being killed but who deserved his lot because the garrisoin in Boston had been provoked by the  townsfolk for weeks beyond all imagination.It all started when the townsfolk were milling around the Kings soldiers
  A mulatto of herculean size, called Crispin Attucks was crying, ‘Let us strike at the root; let us fall on the nest! The Main Guard, the Main Guard!’  
The soldiers coolly loaded their firelocks and fixed bayonets, while the mob, unintimidated, closed in on them. The mob beat at the bayonets and muskets with clubs, shouting, ‘Knock ‘em over; kill ‘em!’ The mulatto aimed a blow at Preston which though it only fell on his arm knocked over a musket, the bayonet of which the mulatto now seized.
 At the same moment there was a confused shout from behind the captain,’ Why don’t you fire?’ Private Montgomery, whose rifle bayonet had been grabbed by Attucks, and who had fallen down, rose to his feet once again in possession of his musket and fired.  Attucks fell dead.  Five or six more shots were fired. Three persons were killed and five wounded, some only slightly. The mob instantly retreated, leaving their dead and wounded on the ground although they soon returned to carry them off."
The truth (maybe) is that only one person was killed that being Attucks ;the whole point of it all is this that it started with a lie and finished with a lie, the last lie was that the British colonists had won a war over their masters.
 iThe lies of the British colonists also turned a stubblebum into a hero (Washington) and a great cavalry leader into a Nazi type henchman, Mel gibson went along for the ride and so do millions of schoolkids in america as regards what their stubblebum teachers teach them in school.
The great tarleton is today probably best remembered for his military service during the American War . He became the focal point of a propaganda campaign claiming that he had fired upon surrendering Continental Army troops at the Battle of Waxhaws. In a publication The Green Dragoon: The Lives of Banastre Tarleton and Mary Robinson by Robert D. Bass (published in 1952) he was given the nickname "Bloody Ban" and The Butcher, which has carried over into popular culture as being his nickname of the day.

He was hailed by the Loyalists and British as an outstanding leader of light cavalry, and was praised for his tactical prowess and resolve, even against superior numbers. His green uniform was the standard of the British Legion, a provincial unit organised inNew York in 1778. Tarleton was later elected as a M.P for Liverpool , a prominent politician. Tarleton's cavalrymen were frequently called "Tarleton's Raiders"

Tuesday, 26 June 2012

historic military town MONTREUIL

Montreuil was the headquarters of the British Army in France during the First World War. General Haig was quartered in a nearby château. A statue commemorating his stay can be seen outside the theatre on the Place390611f2dbccb33c6bd15b528b1839cb Charles de Gaulle. During the German occupation of the town during the Second World War, the statue was taken down; however, it was saved by the townspeople, and was rebuilt in the 1950s.File:Street in Montreuil-sur-Mer, France.JPG

Montreuil had been recommended by friends who have been visiting the town for the past 20 years. Its full name is Montreuil-sur-Mer - and it was a seaside town once. Now, due to tidal changes, it finds itself 10 miles inland.Montreuil sur mer les remparts photo©nordmag2008
But sea or no sea, we were quickly captivated. Montreuil is a "ville fleurie", which means it does not stint on the window-boxes. Flowers cascaded over the walls lining the approach to the town. Wisteria clung to the old stone balconies. Petunias ran riot in front of the town hall. Every roundabout was a work of art.Citadelle Montreuil sur Mer
In the courtyard of the Hôtel de France, where we had mid-morning coffee, it was impossible to move without knocking over a pot of geraniums or becoming entwined in a Virginia creeper. This 13th-century coaching inn used to be one of the stops on the road from Paris to Calais. With its tiny garret windows and crazily sloping roofs, not to mention a black cat that looks as if it has been around since the French Revolution, it is a marvellously atmospheric building and characteristic of a town in which the past is vividly present.Citadelle Montreuil sur Mer
It is certainly present on the ramparts of Montreuil, which circle the upper town and offer splendid views across the surrounding countryside. Bales of hay shimmered in the distance. Swallows swooped through the poplars. An old man hoed his allotment, stooping to pick a marrow the size of a rugby ball. A river meandered through the valley. The scene had a timeless grace.
That same grace was apparent in the town centre. Montreuil is not a big place, just a few old squares linked by cobbled streets; but it is beautifully laid out and there are surprises around every corner. When we went to inspect the equestrian statue in the Place du General de Gaulle, wondering what the great man was doing on horseback, we found it was Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, who led the British forces in France during the First World War.
Another Briton who left her mark on Montreuil was Mrs Mary Wooster, who bequeathed her 19th-century mansion to the town as a museum. It is a delightful place and, from the high-ceilinged ballroom to the ornate bathrooms, complete with bidets on castors, gives a real flavour of gracious living.
For such a sober, solidly built town, Montreuil has an endearingly flamboyant side. Frivolous-looking lingerie and chocolate shops did brisk business. Laughter echoed across the cobbles. Even the town war memorial, in the Place Darnetal, seemed festive, with a scantily clad Angel of Death holding a fallen soldier in her arms.
After an afternoon lolling on the beach at Le Touquet, we took a roundabout route back to Montreuil via the beautiful Authie valley. I had never discovered this part of France before. Like most people, I roar past it on the autoroute from Calais. But I fell under its charm in seconds. Old abbeys, ruined watermills, sun-dappled forests, tranquil streams gliding at their own sweet will, and cows so fat and sleek and contented you wanted to hug them. It was quite a wrench to drive back to Montreuil and tuck into a five-course meal. Only the sumptuous terrine de saumon vindicated the decision. Oh yes, and the cheese course.
For after-dinner entertainment, we were hardly spoiled for choice. It was a case of dancing the night away at the West Indies Bar Club or attending the son et lumière performance of Les Misérables in the grounds of the castle. Given my head, I would have pursued the Caribbean option, the words "son et lumière" striking terror in my soul. But I was overruled by higher authority and was glad I had been.
Instead of what I was expecting, a cynical exercise in ripping off tourists, the performance was a triumph. As a piece of civic pageantry, a community celebrating its history with joy and panache, I have never seen anything to better it. This was the sixth summer in which Montreuil has staged the show and it deserves to run and run.
Capitalising on the fact that Victor Hugo set part of his famous novel in the town, Les Misérables was a 90-minute mimed version of the story, in which a series of tableaux was accompanied by canned music and taped readings from the text. It probably sounds pretty dire. What made the performance so charming, apart from the brilliance of the choreography, was the fact that all 600 parts were taken by the townsfolk of Montreuil.
From six-year-old schoolgirls to bearded old men, they dressed up in 19th-century costume for the evening and put on the show of a lifetime on the lawn in front of the castle keep. Every scene was a picture, from nuns praying in a convent garden to a prison chain-gang being conducted across Paris.
The great coup de théâtre was the Battle of Waterloo. After a non-stop whirl of activity, with guns blazing and a troop of cavalry charging up the hill, the lights dimmed, then came up again seconds later to reveal a scene of total carnage: bloody bodies strewn across the lawn and, centre stage, a dead horse that had collapsed under its rider. Even when the audience burst into applause, the animal did not move a muscle.
We emerged dizzy into the night and wended our way back to the hotel across the cobbles. How many English towns the size of Montreuil could stage a performance of this calibre? The sight of one of the nuns outside the patisserie, her wimple askew, holding a cigarette in one hand and a mobile phone in the other, only added to the charm of the occasion.

Getting there 
Montreuil-sur-Mer is about one hour from Calais by car. A Super Apex return from Dover to Calais, with two passengers, in May costs £89 with Sea France (09064 710777;
Staying there 
B & b in a double room at the two-star hotel Les Clos des Capucins (0033 3 2106 0865) on the Place du General de Gaulle, costs around £45 per night.
Eating out 
Les Hauts de Montreuil (3 2181 9592), set in a 16th-century timber-framed building, specialises in regional dishes.
Further information 
Son et lumière performances of Les Misérables are staged every summer in the castle grounds. For further details, and other information about the town, contact the tourist office (3 2106 0427;
What it cost for two
Ferry crossing £89
Accommodation £45
Dinner £50
Lunches £48 
Son et lumière £18 
Drinks, coffees £30
Total £280

Sunday, 24 June 2012

revell 2nd world war

french producers

French manufacturers:
-Starlux (one of the most important in Europe),
-Guilbert (some mold bought by Clairet

-Minialux,Miniajouet (same factory?)

-Quiralux,(plastic Quiralu)


-Vilco (70's Starlux, Quiralu, Tim-Mee copies),